9 Şubat 2009 Pazartesi

ünite altı Possession expressed in different cases


Possession expressed in different cases

In the foregoing we have learned the different relationships in which a nominal may stand, as genitive, ablative, instrumental, and so on. We have also learned how to indicate possession on the part of persons or things of objects. It is therefore possible in Chuvash, as in English, not only to say “my son,“ or “to a house, one may say “to my son‘s house.“ This is accomplished in Chuvash by adding the relational morphemes after the possessive morphemes as previously learned.
In this case too, the agglutinative forms with several morphemes seem to be giving way to analytic forms under Russian influence. The manner of formation as given in older and newer grammars differs in some details (e. g., in the 2nd p. sg., Ashmarin, 1898, gives ~ where 1960 grammars give u). Thus, the present writer has had to create a few forms by analogy since complete tables are not given. In spite of minor handicaps, the principle and manner of formation are clear, and from a practical point of view they are not hard to recognize.
1st p. possessives expressed in different cases may be given as:
 yvălăm   hĕrĕm   acham   ĕnem
yvălămăn hĕrĕmĕn achamăn ĕnemĕn
yvălăma hĕrĕme achama ĕneme
yvălămra hĕrĕmre achamra ĕnemre
yvălămran hĕrĕmren achamran ĕnemren
yvălămpa hĕrĕmpe achampa ĕnempe

Note that these are all translated by phrases in English such as “from my son, to my cow, with my child.“
The 2nd p. sg. forms may be given as follows. Note two particular changes (also applying to the 3rd p. sg.): in the dative-accusative, the -u characteristic of the 2nd p. sg. drops entirely, leaving only the ending -na/-ne. In the locative and ablative forms, a prothetic -n- occurs between the morpheme -u- and the regular ending -ta, -tan (but not with the instrumental -pa).
 yvălu   hĕrü   achu   ĕnü
yvălun(ăn) hĕrün(ĕn) achun(ăn) ĕnün(ĕn)
yvălna hĕrne achuna ĕnüne
yvălunta hĕrünte achunta ĕnünte
yvăluntan hĕrünten achuntan ĕnünten
yvălupa hĕrüpe achupa ĕnüpe

In the 3rd p. sg., a form widely used when two nouns are juxtaposed (the so-called izafet construction), but also used to indicate possession by him, her or it, only front endings are used, since the suffix itself occurs only in the forms .-i and –ĕ. Note that. stems in -n double the n when the morpheme -ne is added (e. g., zakonne ‘to his law‘). The forms given below may also serve to indicate the 3rd person pi., although usually un or unăn ‘his‘ or vĕsen ‘their‘ is prefixed.
 yvălĕ   hĕrĕ   lashi   ĕni
yvălĕn hĕrĕn lashin ĕnin
yvălne hĕrne lashine ĕnine
yvălĕnche hĕrĕnche lashinche ĕninche
yvălĕnchen hĕrĕnchen lashinchen ĕninchen
yvălĕpe hĕrĕpe lashipe ĕnipe

Thus far, we have considered only instances in which one person or object was possessed by one person or object. Now we shall consider instances in which more than one person possesses one object (or person), viz. “our, your (p1.).“ In the case of “your,“ it must be remembered that in some cases this is only a matter of form, since it can refer, in the polite usage, to only one person. The forms for the 1st p. pl. are as follows:
 yvălămăr  hĕrĕmĕr   lashamăr  ĕnemĕr
yvălămărăn hĕrĕmĕrĕn lashamărăn ĕnemĕrĕn
yvălămăra hĕrĕmĕrne lashamăra ĕnemĕrne
yvălămărta hĕrĕmĕrte lashamărta ĕnemĕrte
yvălămărtan hĕrĕmĕrten lashamărtan ĕnemĕrten
yvălămărpa hĕrĕmĕrpe lashamărpa ĕnemĕrpe

The corresponding forms for the 2nd p. pl. are the following.
 yvălăr   hĕrĕr   lashăr   ĕnĕr
yvălărăn hĕrĕrĕn lashărăn ĕnĕrĕn
yvălăra hĕrĕrne lashăra ĕnĕrne
yvălărta hĕrĕrte lashărta ĕnĕrte
yvălărtan hĕrĕrten lashărtan ĕnĕrten
yvălărpa hĕrĕrpe lashărpa ĕnĕrpe

As previously noted, forms such as jalămărta ‘in our village‘ have been supplanted by pirĕn jalta ‘in our village.‘ A few other instances, drawn from various texts, are:
 pirĕn atteme  to our father
sirĕn yvălupa with your son
sirĕn lasha your horse
lashuna your horse (acc.)
pirĕn rajonta in our region

Some particular types of nominals, as previously pointed out, employ stern alternants under certain conditions. Thus sterns in morphophonemic -U employ their alternant in -ăv/-ĕv before possessive morphemes beginning with a vowel, and before the portmanteau morpheme /. na/. Stems in single consonant plus ă/ĕ employ the alternant with geminated consonant. The 1st p. is:
 şyrăvăm   pĕlĕvĕm   pullăm   küllĕm
şyrăvămăn pĕlĕvĕmĕn pullămăn küllĕmĕn
şyrăvăma pĕlĕvĕme pullăma küllĕme
şyrăvămra pĕlĕvĕmre pullămra küllĕmre
şyrăvămran pĕlĕvĕmren pullărnran küllĕmren
şyrăvămpa pĕlĕvĕmpe pullămpa küllĕmpe

The 2nd p. forms are not quite as predictable. They are as follows:
 şyrăvu   pĕlĕvü   pullu   küllü
şyrăvun pĕlĕvĕn pullun küllün
şyrăvna pĕlĕvne pulluna küllüne
şyrunta pĕlünte pullunta küllünte
şyruntan pĕlünten pulluntan küllünten
şyrăvupa pĕlĕvüpe pullupa küllüpe

In the 3rd p., the following forms are used: (Note front endings only!)
 şyrăvĕ   pĕlĕvĕ   pulli   külli
şyrăvĕn pĕlĕvĕn pullin küllin
şyrăvne or şyrune pĕlĕvne or pelüne pulline külline
şyrăvĕnche pĕlĕvĕnche pullinche küllinche
şyrăvĕnchen pĕlĕvĕnchen pullinchen küllinchen
şyrăvĕpĕ pĕlĕvĕpe pullipe küllipe

Note several interesting features in this declension, namely, that gen. sg. /pĕlĕvĕn/ concides with that of the 2nd p., the same for the dat. -acc. /pĕlĕvne/. Note also the prothetic -n- in the locative and ablative -nche, -nchen.
The possessive forms of nominals in /t/ and /d/ (and orthographic t‘ and d‘) are treated like other words, except for their morphophonemic change of t/d to ch before ĕ viz.
 sklad   warehouse skladăm  skladu  sklachĕ
apat dinner apatăm apatu apachĕ
tetrad notebook tetradĕm tetradü tetrachĕ
element element elementĕm elementü elemenchĕ
turat branch turatăm turatu turachĕ
jat name jatăm jatu jachĕ

Up to now, we have considered the following instances of possession, viz.

1. one person possessing one thing: my book, your book, her book
2. more than one person possessing one thing: our book, their book

There are still two more possibilities that may be expressed, viz.:

3. one person possessing more than one of the items: my books, his books
4. more than one person possessing more than one of the things involved: our books, your books, their books

The formation of the latter two types is quite easy in Chuvash, and can be created by the student on the basis of the following examples for all forms, as it consists merely of adding the invariable plural morpheme forms after the appropriate possessive morphemes.
 yvălămsem  my sons  yvălămărsem   our sons
yvălămsen(ĕn) yvălămărsen(ĕn)
yvălămsene yvălămărsene
yvălămsenche yvălămărsenche
yvălămsenchen yvălămărsenchen
yvălămsempe yvălămărsempe

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