9 Şubat 2009 Pazartesi

ünite on Secondary past tenses of the Indicative: a. Durative past in -ttăm b. Past in the Future: -nă + pul- c. Past of the preterite


Secondary past tenses of the Indicative:
a. Durative past in -ttăm
b. Past in the Future: -nă + pul-
c. Past of the preterite: -se + -ttĕm
The Morpheme chchĕ "was‘

The Durative Past

The past imperfective or past iterative seems to function essentially as a past tense to the durative, as regards its function (but not its formation). As the durative indicates action extending in the present, the durative past, as we shall call it, indicates an action extending in the past, like the imperfect of Western European languages. It may thus frequently and conveniently be translated by forms such as “I was reading, I was writing.“ It indicates incompleted action. The tense formant is the morpheme -tt-, arising from the verb tăr- ‘to stand, to be,‘ thus, “I stand and work“ > I was working.
 vulattăm ĕşlettĕm  şyrattăm pĕlettĕm
vulattăn ĕşlettĕn şyrattăn pĕlettĕn
vulatchĕ ĕşletchĕ şyratchĕ pĕletchĕ

vulattămăr ĕşlettĕmĕr şyrattămăr pĕlettĕmĕr
vulattăr ĕşlettĕr şyrattăr pĕlettĕr
vulatchĕş ĕşletchĕş şyratchĕş pĕletchĕş

The negative forms to the above are the following.

 vulamastăm ĕşlemestĕm  şyrmastăm pĕlmestĕp
vulamastăn ĕşlemestĕn şyrmastăn pĕlmestĕn
vulamastchĕ ĕşlemestchĕ şyrmastchĕ pĕlmestchĕ

vulamastămăr ĕşlemestĕmĕr şyrmastămăr pĕlmestĕpĕr
vulamastăr ĕşlemestĕr şyrmastăr pĕlmestĕr
vulamastchĕş ĕşlemestchĕş şyrmastchĕş pĕlmestchĕş

Fast in the Future

Just as the durative has its past, so too can the future have a past. This tense, commonly called the future perfect, refers to an action that will be past at some future time, thus, if one year from now, I can say “I have taught five years,“ then now, that is expressed as “I shall have taught five years“ (in a year from now). This tense is not a native Chuvash formation, but has obviously been introduced on the model of those found In other languages. Its form, too, is not one employing stem changes or root morphemes, but merely one of juxtaposition of forms. It is little used, and no instance is found in our reading selections. It is made by adding to the stern the invariable morpheme {. nA}, followed by the verb pul- ‘to be, become‘ in the future tense.
 epĕ kajnă pulăp  “I shall be one who has gone,“ “I shall have gone"
esĕ kajnă pulăn you will have gone
văl kajnă pulĕ he will have gone

epir kajnă pulăpăr we shall have gone
esir kajna pulăr you will have gone
vĕsem kajnă pulĕş they will have gone

If a verb with front vowels is used, as il- ‘to take, buy,‘ the corresponding form ilnĕ ‘taken, bought‘ Is substituted. This form in -nă/-nĕ will be discussed shortly at length. The negative to this is in -mAn, as /kajman/ or /ilmen/, viz. epĕ kajman pulăp “I shall not have gone.“ Since the formation is invariable, no additional listings will be given here.

Past Preterite

The preterite too may have its own past, which the Chuvash grammarians call the ‘long-past categorical.‘ Although not connected in form with the preterite proper, its function seems to place it here as a sort of pluperfect, being used to denote an action which went on in the past before the completion of another action also in the past. Like the preterite, this too ja an eyewitness tense. It actually arises from a compounding of the main root morpheme with the coordinate gerund in -sa (a feature to be taken up shortly), to which the formation -ttăm (etc.) of the past durative is then added. In the negative formation, note that the allomorph -ma- occurs before the morpheme -sa-. This tense too is a rather artificial one, and seldom seen.

 vulasattăm ĕşlesettĕm  şyrsattăm pĕlsettĕm
vulasattăn ĕşlettĕn şyrsattăn pĕlsettĕn
vulasachchĕ ĕşlesechchĕ şyrsachchĕ pĕlsechchĕ

vulasattămăr ĕşlesettĕmĕr şyrsattămăr pĕlsettĕmĕr
vulasattăr ĕşlesettĕr şyrsattăr pĕlsettĕr
vulasachchĕş ĕşlesechchĕş şyrsachchĕş pĕlsettĕş

The negative formation is as follows.

 vulamasattăm ĕşlemesettĕm  şyrmasattăm pĕlmesettĕm
vulamasattăn ĕşlemesettĕn şyrmasattăn pĕlmesettĕn
vulamasachchĕ ĕşlemesechchĕ şyrmasachchĕ pĕlmesechchĕ

vulamasattămăr ĕşlemesettĕmĕr şyrmasattămăr pĕlmesettĕmĕr
vulamasattăr ĕşlemesettĕr şyrmasattăr pĕlmesettĕr
vulamasachchĕş ĕşlemesechchĕş şyrmasachchĕş pĕlmesechchĕş

The Morpheme chchĕ ‘was‘

The morpheme –chchĕ has the meaning of “was, were,“ and may be added to many stems to give the additional emphasis that something is completed, or in the past. It is exactly equivalent in origin, meaning and usage to the -dy of Turkic languages. It may be attached to the nouns pur and şuk to yield purchchĕ “there was, there were“ and şukchchĕ “there was not, there were not.“ Note that in the case of several tenses, the 3rd p. sg. ends in -chĕ‚ which is more properly considered part of the tense formation. The morpheme chchĕ occurs regularly as a free variant with zero in the past preterite and the past durative, viz.:
 şyrattămchchĕ  şyrsattămchchĕ
şyrattănchchĕ şyrsattănchchĕ
(şyratchĕ) (şyrsachchĕ)

şyrattămărchchĕ şyrsattămărchchĕ
şyrattărchchĕ şyrsattărchchĕ
şyratchĕş şyrsatchĕş

As the same formation is added to front and back words alike, and to the negative forms, there is no need to give a separate listing here.
The formation may be a bit clearer if we paraphrase it into rather long-winded English, giving its literal meaning as:
  “I was one who was working“
you were one who was working
he is one who was working

“I was wie who had been working“

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