9 Şubat 2009 Pazartesi

ünite dört Instrumental relational morpheme; minor case morphemes (privative, purposive, directive, vocative); compound case morphemes.

Instrumental relational morpheme;
minor case morphemes (privative, purposive, directive, vocative);
compound case morphemes.
Tables of nominal declension.
Plural declension.

Instrumental Relational Morpheme

This morpheme is used to indicate the general means or instrument by which something is accomplished, corresponding to such words as “by, with, by means of“ and so on, in English. The morpheme is {-pA), with allomorphs of /-pa/ with back vowel words, and /-pe/ with front vowel words. In addition, the archaic and dialectal endings /pala, palan, pele, pelen/ may also be seen occasionally, but no nuance of meaning attaches to them. A few foreign words, mostly in -a and -ja, do employ a stem alternant of -ă anti –jă before the instrumental morpheme, but there is none of the other complications found in the genitive and accusative morphemes.

Some instances of the use of the instrumental are the following:

 pojezdpa   by train
părahutpa kiltĕm I came by steamer
vĕsem vărmanpa pynă they went by way of the woods

kolhozniksem tyrra the collective farmers
kombainpa vyrsa harvest grain with a
puştaraşşĕ combine

manpa pĕrle kilchĕ he came together with me

In addition to indicating the instrument or means by which things are accomplished, it may also indicate the place by which or through which an action goes on, the joint performing of actions with something or someone else. The instrumental may also indicate the time at which an action occurs, and thus is frequently found in fixed expressions of time, as:
 irpe   in the morning (Ger. morgens, Russ. utrom)
kaşpa in the evening (abends, vecherom)
kunĕpe all day (lit. ‘with its day,‘ a possessive)
pajan kunĕpe today all day
şĕrĕpe all night
ernipe all week

The instrumental morpheme is often used to mean “and,“ especially in titles.
 kahalpa pujan  “The Lazybones and the Rich Man“ (folktale) (207)
fonetikapa morfologi “Phonetics and Morphology“ (subtitle of a Chuvash grammar)

Minor Case Morphemes

In addition to the case morphemes enumerated, some Chuvash grammarians consider the morpheme -săr/-sĕr ‘without‘ (the so-called privative case, meaning to be deprived of something), and the morpheme -shăn/-shĕn ‘for‘ (the so-called purposive case denoting the purpose of something) to be cases. In the present work, we shall not include them as cases in the regular sense of the word largely because their use is absolutely regular and predictable both in form and content. They have no allomorphs other than those required by vowel harmony, and may be used with every noun if the central meaning of the word permits it to be logically used. Some examples are the following.

 alsăr-urasăr  without arms or legs
syvalăshsăr airless, without air, anaerobic
văisăr şyn a man without strength, a weak man
şynsăr without a man, having no man
kĕnekesĕr acha a boy without books, “a bookless boy“

 şyn syvlăhshĕn   for a man‘s health
tyrpulshan for (the goal or end of) harvests
şirĕp mirshĕn for lasting peace! (slogan)
mĕnshĕn, mĕshĕn for what, why?
vĕsem kulnăshăn owing to their laughing, because they laughed
acha şapah anashshăn pulnă the boy was for descending (= wanted to go down)
manăn hĕrĕ tălăha because of my daughters‘ remaining widows


The directive morpheme is {-(A)llA), and means ‘towards, to, at, in the direction of, -wards“ and so on. It is still a productive suffix and is found in the reading materials. Some instances are the following;

 vărmanalla towards the woods, woods-ward
ajalalla downwards
tăvalla towards the mountain
şülelle upwards
kilelle towards home, homewards (Ger. nach Hause)

It is interesting to note a case of similar phonemic formation and function in the Finnic languages.


There are some additional morphemes which might be considered case morphemes, as the terminative (cf. Hungarian!) in -ĕchen, meaning “up to, as far as,“ and some others, including a few vocative remnants. These forms, however, are little employed, and for our present purposes will not be considered.

Compound Case Morphemes

There is nothing to prevent more than one case morpheme being used at one time, should the meaning of both of them be needed in a phrase or sentence, and this is occasionally done. The most common is the use of the combined ablative and locative in {-.RAnpA}, of which the following are examples:

 paşărtanpa  since time immemorial
ĕnertenpe since yesterday
kilnĕrenpe from the time I arrived

Tables of Nominal Declension

Here are given tables to illustrate various types of nominals in the six cases, namely, absolute, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, ablative and instrumental. As this order is always the same, we shall not henceforth mark the names of cases when all are given at once.

Note that nouns in orthographic l", n", r" use front endings in the written language.


  Back     Front
Consonant Vowel Consonant Vowel

arman lasha tir măkăn‘ ĕne shăshi
armanăn lashan(ăn) tirĕn măkănĕn ĕnen(ĕn) shăshin or shăshijen

armana lashana tire măkăne ĕnene shăshiye
armanta lashara tirte măkăn‘te ĕnere shăshire
armanta lasharan tirten măkăn‘ten ĕneren shăshiren
armanpa lashapa tirpe măkăn‘pe ĕnepe shăshipe

(j—stem) (j—stem)
alăk sămah uj tinĕs sij
alăkăn sămahăn ujăn tinĕsĕn sijĕn
alăka sămaha uja tinĕse sije
alăkra sămahra ujra tinĕsre sijre
alăkran sămahran ujran tinĕsren sijren
alăkpa sămahpa ujpa tinĕspe sijpe

pulă purtă külĕ pĕrchĕ
pullăn purtăn küllĕn pĕrchĕn
pulla purta külle pĕrche
pulăra purtăra külĕre pĕrchĕre
pulăran purtăran külĕren pĕrchĕren
pulăpa purtăpa külĕpe pĕrchĕpe

şyru kĕtü
şyrăvan kĕtĕvĕn
şyrăva kĕtĕve
şyrura kĕtüre
şyruran kĕtüren
şyrupa kĕtüpe

Back Front
Consonant Vowel Consonant Vowel

metall kino -stvo oktjabr‘ parti
metalăn kinon -stvăn oktjabrĕn parti or partijĕn
metala kinona -stvăna oktjabre partije
metalra kinora -stvăra oktjabr‘te partire
metairan kinoran -stvăran oktjabr‘ten partiren
metalpa kinopa -stvăpa oktjabr‘pe partipe

vlast‘ stsena ideja izvest‘
vlaşăn stsenăn idejăn izveşĕn
vlaşa stsenăna idejăna izveşe
vlaşra stsenăra idejăra izveşre
vlaşran stsenăran idejăran izveşren
vlaşpa stsenăpa idejăpa izveşpe

Plural Declension

The plural morpheme in Chuvash is {-seN}, with the allomorph /-sem/ in word-final position, before a homoorganically articulated consonant (e. g., -p), and before the privative and purposive morphemes -sĂr and -shĂn, and the allomorph /-sen/ before all other endings. This morpheme does not observe vowel harmony in the written language; thus, all endings may be given as:

-sen (-ĕn)

Examples of the plural deciension are the following. As pointed out previously, Chuvash is unique among Turkic languages in that the possessive morphemes are added before the plural morpheme, contrary to the practice in others.

 sămahsem  tinĕssem  lashasem
sămahsen(ĕn) tinĕssen(ĕn) lashasen(ĕn)
sămahsene tinĕssene lashasene
sămahsenche tinĕssenche lashasenche
sămahsenchen tinĕssenchen lashasenchen
sămahsempe tinĕssempe lashasempe

If the -s of -sem is preceded by ş or sh‚ remember that in pronunciation, the two s sounds will assimilate to each other, namely, to ş or sh.

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