9 Şubat 2009 Pazartesi

ünite oniki Mood-formants: Imperative; optative; conditional.


Mood-formants: Imperative; optative; conditional.

Imperative Mood

The imperative mood is the mood of command and order, and in this mood we find the bare stem of the verb used. This occurs in the 2nd p. sg. In the other persons endings are used. In the other persons endings are used.
 epĕ vulam, pĕlem, şyram   let me read, know, write!
esĕ vula, pĕl, şyr read! know! write!
văl vulatăr, pĕltĕr, şyrtăr let him read, know, write!
epir vular, pĕler, şyrar let‘s read, let‘s know, let‘s write!
esir vulăr, pĕlĕr, şyrăr read! know! write!
vĕsem vulachchăr, pĕlchchĕr, şyrchchăr let them read, know, write!

The negative imperative adds the postposed morpheme mar in the 1st p. sg. and pl.‚ and the preposed morpheme of similar meaning, an, in the other persons, viz.
 vulam mar    pĕlem mar
an vula an pĕl
an vulatăr an pĕltĕr

vular mar pĕler mar
an vulăr an pĕlĕr
an vulachchăr an pĕlchchĕr

Examples of the usage in this mood are the following.
 atja epir anar   well then, let‘s go down (to the earthly world)
lesh tĕnchene ansa kurar let‘s go down and see the other world
esĕ ăna syhla you watch him
an şyvăr don‘t sleep
tytta an jar hold on and don‘t release him
hăvah kaj go yourself!
pĕtĕm Raşşeje kursa surer let‘s ride and see all of Russia
şüle kajar-i je şĕre kajar-i shall we go to the sky or to the earth
kus kajsa kan ĕntĕ go and return and rest now
halĕ hu pytan now you hide yourself
şyvra karas pulăsem sürechchĕr Let carp-fish go in the water!

Conditional Mood

This mood is used for actions in which the possibility of the action occurring is only probable, or is contingent upon some other happening. Thus, it is translated by words like “would, if“ etc. It is characterized by the conditional morpheme {(Ă)ttĂm}. Note the close resemblance of these forms to those of the durative past formation in -ttăm. The conditional has a short ă before the ending. The 1st and 2nd ps. are also often used with the past morpheme -chchĕ‚ to create the nuance “would have.“ Note the lack of vowel harmony in the 3rd p. sg. and pl.

 vulăttăm pĕlĕttĕm  şyrăttăm kajăttăm
vulăttăn pĕlĕttĕn şyrăttăn kajăttăn
vulĕchchĕ pĕlĕchchĕ şyrĕchchĕ kajĕchchĕ

vulăttămăr pĕlĕttĕmĕr şyrăttămăr kajăttămăr
vulăttăr pĕlĕttĕr şyrăttăr kajăttăr
vulĕchchĕş pĕlĕchchĕş şyrĕchchĕş kajĕchchĕş

The negation to the above employs the allomorph -m- of the negative morpheme.

 vulamăttăm pĕlmĕttĕm
vulamăttăn pĕlmĕttĕn
vulamĕchchĕ pĕlmĕchchĕ

vulamăttămăr pĕlmĕttĕmĕr
vulamăttăr pĕlmĕttĕr
vulamĕchchĕş pĕlmĕchchĕş

The negative may also employ the suffixed morpheme –chchĕ. Examples of this mood are the following.
 vulăttăm   I would read (but I have no book)
ilĕttĕm I would buy (but I have no money)
kalăttăm I would say (If I dared)
kajmăttăm I wouldn‘t go (but I can‘t refuse)
ilmĕttĕm I wouldn‘t buy it (but I have to)
jarăttăm ta I would release you, but
‘kajăttăm ta ürkenetĕp‘ “I would go, but I am lazy“ he said

An artificial past tense is formed to the conditional by the use of the nomen perfecti in -nă to which the conditional of pul ‘to be, become‘ is added, thus, şyrrnă pulăttăm “I would have written“ lit. I would become one who has written.

Optative (Subjunctive) Mood

This mood expresses the hope that something will come to be, in the sense “would that it should happen, would that he come,“ or the concessive idea of “even if he should come.“ It is relatively little used, and in its formation appears to arise from two form-classes, the 2nd p. forms being suppletive.

 vulăpin  pĕlĕpin  larăpin
vulăsăn pĕlĕsĕn larăsăn
vulin pĕlin larin

vulăpărin pĕlĕpĕrin larăpărin
vulăsăr pĕlĕsĕr larăsăr
vulăşin pĕlĕşin larăşin

The negative forms of the above are the following.

 vulamăpin pĕlmĕpin larmăpin
vulamăsăn pĕlmĕsĕn larmăsăn
vulamin pĕlmin larmin

vulamăpărin pĕlmĕpĕrin larmăpărin
vulamăsăr pĕlmĕsĕr larmăsăr
vulamăşin pĕlmĕşin larmăşin

There is also an artificial past tense formed from the nomen perfecti in -na plus the subjunctive of pul-, thus:
 şyrnă pulăpin    şyrman pulăpin
etc. etc.

According to the Chuvash grammarians, a true optative mood is formed by adding the morpheme -chchĕ to the forms given in the first paragraph. However, today, such expression of desire as “would that…“ is rendered by the imperative mood.

Hiç yorum yok:

Yorum Gönder