9 Şubat 2009 Pazartesi

ünite üç Objective relational morpheme (dative and accusative cases, direct and indirect object); locative relational morpheme; ablative relational mo


Objective relational morpheme (dative and accusative cases, direct and indirect object); locative relational morpheme; ablative relational morpheme.

Objective Relational Morpheme

The function of the objective relational morpheme in Chuvash combines most features of the dative and accusative cases of other languages, or the functions of direct and indirect object, hence the name, objective relational, as indicating the objects of action, direct or indirect
The objective relational morpheme in Chuvash is {-(n)A}, and as in the preceding lesson, we shall employ here too morphophonemic symbols to indicate the various allomorphs (which exist for the most part under the same conditions as for the genitive morpheme).
1Zero allomorph with all stems
2After polysyllabic consonant sterns, and some monosyllabic.A
3After polysyllabic vocalic stems, except in -i, -U, and -ă/-ĕ.nA
4After native and foreign Sterns in -i .ye
5After sterns in -U, employing their stem alternant in -ăv/-ĕv .A
6After polysyllabic vowel stems in –C1ĂC1C1.A
7After polysyllabic vowel stems in –C1C2ĂC1C2.A
8After borrowed stems in -a, -ya and some in -oă.na
9After borrowed stems in other vowels (- V) and some in -oV.na
10After some monosyllabic consonant stems C1C1.a

The objective relational morpheme has the function of indicating the person or object to or for which something is done, as well as indicating the actual object of action, in the event that this is a definite and specific object. Some instances of the various allomorphs are:
 arman  mill    a1ăk  door
armana to a mill, the mill a1ăka to a door, the door
tir leather, hide kukăl‘ pie
tire to leather kukăle to a pie, the pie
uj fieid sij layer
uje to the field sije to a layer
parti political party lasha horse
partije to the party lashana to a horse, the horse
ĕne cow shăshi a mouse
ĕnene to a cow, the cow shăshije to a mouse
kinona to the movies obshchestvăna to society
stsenăna to the stage idejăna to an idea

mashinăna benzin jană they put gas in the machine
udarniksene premi pană they give prizes to shock workers
Petĕre kĕneke kirlĕ pulnă Peter needs a book (to P. a book is needed)

When the object of action is general and unspecified, the zero allomorph is employed.

When the object is enumerated, or specific and definite, the appropriate other allomorph is used.

The indefinite accusative thus coincides at this point with the so-called absolute case.

According to some, the indefinite accusative enables the object to stand in a particular and dose
relationship to its verb, thus:
epĕ kĕneke iltĕmI bought a book, in the sense ‘I did bookbuying, I book-bought‘

 epĕ şakă kĕnekene iletĕp I buy this book
vĕreneken himi kĕnekine vulat the student reads the chemistry book

 epĕ matematika vĕrenetĕp  I study mathematics

The dative function of “to“ is also performed by this morpheme.
 epir irpe Shupashkara şitrĕmĕr we came to Cheboksary in the morning
kile home, homewards (Ger. nach Hause, Russ. domoi)

This morpheme is also used to indicate the specific length of time, and other expressions of

quantity and duration:
 vută pĕr ujăxa şitet  the firewood will hold out for a month
kanashlu vişĕ kuna pyrat the conference will last three days
şĕr tenke patăm sold for 100 rubles

Note the following instance of definite vs. indefinite:
 kĕneke vulat  he reads books, he reads a book
(or books in general as a practice)
ku kĕnekene vulat he is reading the book
(some particular one, perhaps previously mentioned)

Some particular cases of formation should be mentioned. The disyllabic stems in -a/-ĕ

employ a stem alternation which geminates the consonant preceding, to which a full-length a or e

is then added. Thus:
 pulă fish   jytă dog
pulla the fish, to a fish jytta the dog, to a dog
külĕ a lake külle to a lake, the lake

 şyn a man   şynna the man, to a man
tir grain tirra the grain, to grain

Stems which already end in two consonants (CC) plus a reduced vowel add one unit of length, thus,

/purtă/ ‘axe‘ > /purta/ the axe (acc.). However, Russian loans, particularly in -a and –ja

shorten this vowel to -~ă or -jă after which the regular ending –na is added.
As in the case of the genitive morpheme, stems in -u/-ü employ their stern alternate in

-ăv/-ĕv, thus:
 pĕlü  fact   şyru letter
pĕlĕve the fact (acc.) şyrăva the letter (acc.)

Locative Relational Morpheme

The locative relational morpheme is used in the function of indicating the place where something is or where an action takes place, thus corresponding in general to the use of “in“ in English. It is both temporal and spatial in reference. The morpheme is {-R.A}, with the following allomorphs:
1.After front vowel sterns and consonant stems except /l n r/
2.After back vowel sterns and consonant stems except /l n r/
3.After front vowel consonant stems in /l n r/
4.After back vowel consonant stems in /l n r/
5.After possessives (to be learned later) and the plural morpheme {-seN}
- ce (only)
6.After the 3rd p. sg. possessive morpheme (will be discussed later)

Note that stems in –ă/-ĕ which bad some changes in the genitive and accusative cases, do not have these changes in the locative, or in any other case. Foreign words, usually in -a or -ja, do, however, employ a stern alternant shortening the vowels to -ă‚ viz., stsenăra ‘on the stage,‘ or idejăra ‘in the idea,‘ but kinora ‘in the movies.‘ Some instances of use of the various allomorphs are the following:

 shyvra  in the water  Atălta   on the Volga
tinĕsre at sea, on the sea Xusanta in Kazan
vărmanta in the woods pürtre in the house
ujra on the field kilte at home

ernere şichĕ kun in the week are seven days

pulăra in the fish şyrura in the letter
külĕre in the lake pĕlüre in the fact, matter

alăkra in the door
alăksenche in the doors (from * alăk-sen-te)
slon Indire puranat the elephant lives in India

Somewhat similar endings are employed on the pronouns (to be treated later), as manra ‘in me‘ (note n + r!).
 lesh tencere  to that world
lupashkara in the ravine
hirte in the field

Ablative Relational Morpheme

The ablative morpheme is used in the general meaning of English “from,“ or “out of, owing to, because of.“ Its endings are exactly like those of the preceding locative case, except that they affix an -n, thus, -ren, -ran, -ten, -tan, -chen. There are quite a few uses of the ablative, and not every type can be covered here.

A. The English general usage of “from” to indicate distance in space and time;
 turan   from the mountain   alăkran  from the door

jultashran şyru iltĕm I got a letter from (my) friend
achasem ujran checheksem tatsa kilchĕş the boys brought flowers from the field

B. Material from which things are made or the place from which things are taken.
 jyvăşran tună pürt  a hut made from wood
Atăltan tytnă pulă a fish taken from the Volga

C. In use with expressions of time, the ablative often has the effect of English ‘in“ with a future meaning, as “in a month, in a few days we will do it.“
 ülemren   in the future
ujăχran in a month
vişĕ kuntan in three days
pĕr seχetren after an hour

D. Some functions of the Instrumental (Unit Four) can be found with the ablative, and may be translated “by, through, via, by means of, owing to.“
 sassăran   by (one‘s) voice
kürshĕren by a neighbor, in company, with a neighbor
alăkran kĕr- to enter by the door
chürecheren păχ- to look from the window

E. A very important use of the ablative is a making comparisons, to mean “than.“
 juman şăkaran jyvăr  oak is heavier than linden
(lit. “Oak from linden is heavy“)
utran şüle, kurăkran lutra “Higher than a horse, lower than the grass“
(Folk-riddle: Answer: ‘saddle‘)
yrăran yră best of all
(lit. “good from good,“ i. e., better than good)
Atăl şavaltan pysăk the Volga is bigger than the Tsivil

F. Sometimes still other words must be used as the English equivalents of the Chuvash ablative.
 vişĕ yvăltan pĕri  one of my three Sons
acha lashinchen yjtnă the boy asked (inquired of) his horse
suhaltan (seized him) by the beard (lit. “from the beard“)
kuşran nachar weak in the eyes
şukran on account of there not being any
sivĕren on account of the cold

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